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基于3S集成技术的半干旱草原区大型露天煤炭基地景观格局优化研究

Study on Landscape Pattern Optimization of Large-scale Surface Coal Base in Semi-arid Steppe Based on 3S Integrated Technology

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【Author in Chinese】 吴振华

【Supervisor】 卞正富雷少刚

【Author's Information】 中国矿业大学, 测绘科学与技术, 2020, 博士

【Abstract in Chinese】 人类有着数千年的煤炭开采与利用的文明史,在中国乃至世界,煤炭在能源利用中的重要地位一直不可撼动。中国东部煤炭资源逐渐枯竭,为进一步满足中国的能源需求,中国政府在“十二五”和“十三五”期间提出,要加快煤炭开发战略西移,在中国西北部重点建设9个大型煤炭基地,并加快大型煤炭基地外煤矿关闭退出。中国西北部半干旱草原地区具有酷寒、干旱、土壤贫瘠且蒸发强度大、植物生长期短等特点,草原生态本底条件极为脆弱,是景观生态退化极其严重的地区。中国大多数露天煤矿都位于干旱和半干旱地区,煤炭开发导致其景观结构缺损与景观功能失调等一系列景观生态干扰与生态环境问题。因此,有效的景观格局优化是非常有必要的,这包括以最小的人工干预实现最大限度的整体恢复、综合了解景观生态问题以及采矿对景观生态影响的复杂性。然而,煤炭露天开采对半干旱草原景观格局的影响规律不清,导致景观格局优化方法不能有针对性地解决半干旱草原区大型露天煤炭基地的景观生态问题。本研究的目标是:1、研究基于引导型自修复的矿区景观格局优化理论与方法;2、完善半干旱草原区大型煤炭基地景观分类体系;3、对研究区进行充分的景观生态调查;4、明确半干旱草原区大型煤炭基地景观生态健康的内涵、标准、评价指标体系与模型;5、深入研究煤炭露天开采对草原景观格局的影响规律;6、确定半干旱草原区大型煤炭基地景观格局优化方案。最终得出以下研究成果:(1)本研究遵循大型煤炭基地景观分类的原则,在发生法土地分类的基础上,充分考虑土地的生态属性,融入景观生态学的格局、过程与功能理论,采用自上而下的分解式分类法,借鉴生物学分类的阶层命名法,最终构建了半干旱草原区大型煤炭基地景观分类体系,其中景观界4类,景观纲16类,景观科62类,景观种超过200类。与此同时,本研究在景观分类与调查的基础上,对2002-2017年间锡林浩特市胜利大型露天煤炭基地景观格局演变进行了深入的分析,分析结果表明:1)人类的各种干扰导致了草原景观斑块数量逐渐增多、景观逐渐破碎化、景观连通性逐渐下降、景观多样性逐渐升高、景观形状趋于复杂而不规则、景观斑块越来越离散、景观异质性与复杂性增强、景观稳定性逐渐下降;2)草原景观是本研究区的基质,矿业景观、城镇景观、工业仓储景观以及路网景观逐年扩张并占用了大量的草原景观,导致草原景观逐渐减少,不健康草原景观逐年增加。(2)本研究提出了基于Albedo-MSAVI特征空间的半干旱草原区荒漠化指数(Semi-Arid Steppe Desertification Index,SASDI)模型。结果表明,SASDI模型与土壤表层有机质具有很高的相关性(R~2=0.7585),该模型充分运用了多维遥感信息,有利于半干旱草原区荒漠化的定量分析与持续监测。与此同时,本研究提出了基于SI-Brightness特征空间的半干旱草原盐渍化指数(Semi-Arid Steppe Salinization Index,SASSI)。结果表明,SASSI模型与土壤表层含盐量具有很高的相关性(R~2=0.7698),并充分运用了多维遥感信息。SASSI模型能够精确、有效而方便地获取半干旱草原的土壤盐渍化信息。(3)本研究构建了适用于半干旱草原大型煤炭基地景观生态健康评价的模型——CVORE(Condition,Vigor,Organization,Resilience,and Ecosystem Services Function),并以此为基础提出了半干旱草原大型煤炭基地景观生态健康评价的指标体系,明确了半干旱草原大型煤炭基地景观生态健康的内涵,制定了半干旱草原大型煤炭基地景观生态健康的标准。与此同时,本研究在景观生态健康评价的基础上,还进行了煤炭露天开采对半干旱草原景观生态健康的影响研究。研究结果表明:1)轻度不健康景观主要位于人类干扰较多的区域周边,中度不健康景观主要是矿区工业广场景观,重度不健康景观基本都是采坑,各健康等级的占比呈现“两头少,中间多”的正态分布模式,不健康景观逐年增多,健康景观逐渐减少;2)研究区景观生态健康的时空分布特征极其明显而单一,水含量高的区域景观生态健康状况极好,人类干扰较多的区域景观生态健康状况较差;3)根据大型露天煤炭基地的开发方式、煤炭露天开采过程中形成的扰动景观类型以及研究区景观生态健康的演变过程,本研究将煤炭露天开采对健康草原的影响分为四种类型:扰动退化型、扰动退化恢复型、稳定健康型和波动型;4)影响研究区草原景观生态健康的空间分布与变化的驱动因素有水、露天矿、城市、农业、工业、路网以及高程,煤炭露天开采对草原景观生态健康有着显著的影响。(4)提出了大型露天煤炭基地对半干旱草原景观生态影响的概念模型,厘清了矿区景观格局优化的目标、原则和理论,在此基础上提出了基于引导型自修复的矿区景观格局优化理论与方法。在进行锡林浩特市胜利大型煤炭基地引导型自修复的研究过程中,提出了修正的景观干扰指数,并结合景观生态健康评价、缓冲区分析、景观生态功能贡献率,确立了大型露天煤炭基地对半干旱草原景观生态健康影响的空间分布,以此为基础提出了工程修复斑块、人工维护斑块和自然修复斑块三个景观生态修复区及相应的引导型自修复的建议,最终以最小的成本达到整体景观功能提升与可持续发展的目的,实现“景观格局优化”。在进行锡林浩特市胜利大型煤炭基地景观格局优化的研究过程中,通过构建基于多规融合的阻力面,采用最小累积阻力模型进行景观格局优化,在新构建的“源”景观、生态廊道、生态节点以及人工湿地的基础上提出了“一环、两纵、两横、八核心、十节点、多廊道”的景观格局优化模型,本研究所提出的“景观格局优化”模型立足于大型煤炭基地景观生态固有的修复能力以及采矿对景观生态的影响过程,通过构建潜在的景观格局“帮助”大型煤炭基地自修复,使受损景观生态通过自身的主动反馈,不断自发地走向良性循环和恢复,实现“引导型自修复”。与此同时,本研究将煤炭基地、矿群以及矿区三个尺度的一系列修复策略相结合,提出了多尺度引导型自修复的景观格局优化体系。在景观生态学、测绘科学与技术、土地资源管理、地理学、生态学、露天采矿学、恢复生态学、矿山生态学、土地复垦与生态重建等多个学科的基础上,以锡林浩特市胜利煤田这一典型的半干旱草原区大型煤炭基地为例,提出了基于引导型自修复的矿区景观格局优化理论与方法,以及“大型煤炭基地景观分类、调查与监测→景观生态健康评价→煤炭露天开采对半干旱草原景观格局的影响→基于引导型自修复的景观格局优化”的研究体系,旨在为世界各地矿业城市、大型煤炭基地等类似研究区的景观分类、景观生态评价、采矿对景观生态的影响规律、景观格局优化、景观生态规划、生态规划、城市规划、景观生态修复等提供借鉴。该论文有图52幅,表24个,参考文献390篇。

【Abstract】 Human beings have thousands years of civilization history of coal mining and utilization.The important position of coal in energy utilization has been unshakable in China and even the world.The coal resources in eastern China are gradually exhausted.In order to further meet the demand of China’s energy,during the“12th Five Year Plan”and“13th Five Year Plan”,the Chinese government proposed to speed up the strategic shift of coal development to the west,and focus on the construction of nine large-scale coal bases in Northwest China,and accelerate the closure and exit of coal mines outside the large-scale coal bases.The semi-arid steppe in Northwest China has the characteristics of cold,drought,poor soil,high evaporation intensity and short plant growth period.The grassland ecological background conditions are extremely fragile,and it is a region with extremely serious landscape ecological degradation.Most of China’s surface coal mines are located in arid and semi-arid regions.The exploitation of coal leads to a series of landscape ecological disturbance and ecological environment problems,such as landscape structure defect and dysfunction.Therefore,it is very necessary to optimize the landscape pattern effectively,which includes realizing the maximum overall recovery with the minimum manual intervention,comprehensively understanding the landscape ecological problems and the complexity of the impact of mining on the landscape ecology.However,the impact of surface coal mining on the landscape pattern of semi-arid steppe is not clear,which leads to the existing landscape pattern optimization methods that cannot be targeted and scientific to solve the landscape ecological problems of large-scale surface coal bases in semi-arid steppe.The objectives of this study are:1.study on the theory and method of landscape pattern optimization based on guided self-restoration;2.put forward the landscape classification system of large-scale coal bases in semi-arid steppe;3.carry out full landscape ecological investigation in the study area;4.define the connotation,standard,assessment index system and model of landscape ecological health for large-scale coal base in semi-arid steppe;5.in-depth study on the impact of surface coal mining on grassland landscape pattern;6.determine the landscape pattern optimization plan of large-scale coal base in semi-arid steppe.Finally,the following research results are obtained:(1)Based on the principle of landscape classification of large-scale coal bases,this study fully considers the ecological attributes of land on the basis of genetic land classification,integrates the pattern,process and function theory of landscape ecology,and adopts the top-down decomposition classification method,draws lessons from the hierarchical nomenclature of biological classification,and finally constructs the landscape classification system of large-scale coal bases in semi-arid steppe,which includes 4 categories of landscape community,16 categories of landscape class,62categories of landscape family,and more than 200 categories of landscape species.Moreover,on the basis of landscape classification and investigation,this study conducts an in-depth analysis on the landscape pattern evolution of Shengli large-scale surface coal base in Xilinhot City from 2002 to 2017.The analysis results show that:1)all kinds of human disturbance lead to the increase of grassland landscape patches,the fragmentation of landscape,the decline of landscape connectivity,the increase of landscape diversity,the complexity and irregularity of landscape shape,the dispersion of landscape patches,the enhancement of landscape heterogeneity and complexity,and the decline of landscape stability;2)grassland landscape is the matrix of the study area.Mining landscape,urban landscape,industrial storage landscape and road network landscape expand year by year and occupy a large number of grassland landscape,resulting in the gradual decrease of grassland landscape and the increase of unhealthy grassland landscape year by year.(2)In this study,a Semi-Arid Steppe Desertification Index(SASDI)model based on the Albedo-MSAVI feature space was proposed.The results show that SASDI model has a high correlation with surface soil organic matter(R~2=0.7585).The model makes full use of multi-dimensional remote sensing information,which is conducive to the quantitative analysis and continuous monitoring of desertification in semi-arid steppe regions.At the same time,this study proposes a Semi-Arid Steppe Salinization Index(SASSI)based on SI-Brightness feature space,and analyzes the relationship between SASSI and surface quantitative parameters.The results show that the SASSI model has a high correlation with surface soil salinity(R~2=0.7698),and makes full use of multi-dimensional remote sensing information.SASSI model can obtain soil salinization information of semi-arid steppe regions accurately,effectively and conveniently.(3)In this study,CVORE(Condition,Vigor,Organization,Resilience,and Ecosystem services function)model was constructed for landscape ecological health assessment of large-scale coal base in semi-arid steppe.On this basis,the paper puts forward the index system of landscape ecological health assessment of large-scale coal base in semi-arid steppe,defines the connotation of landscape ecological health of large-scale coal base in semi-arid steppe,and formulates the standard of landscape ecological health for large-scale coal base in semi-arid steppe.At the same time,based on the landscape ecological health assessment,this study also analyzed the impact of surface coal mining on landscape ecological health of semi-arid steppe.The results show that:1)the mild unhealthy landscape is mainly located around the area with more human disturbance.The moderate unhealthy landscape is mainly the industrial square landscape of mining area.The severe unhealthy landscape is basically the open-pit of mining area.The proportion of each health level presents a normal distribution mode of“less at both ends,more in the middle”.The unhealthy landscape increases year by year,and the healthy landscape gradually decreases;2)the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of landscape ecological health in the study area are extremely obvious and single.The regional landscape ecological health with high water content is excellent,and the regional landscape ecological health with more human interference is poor;3)according to the development mode of large-scale surface coal base,the types of disturbed landscape formed in the process of coal surface mining and the evolution process of landscape ecological health in the study area,the impact of coal surface mining on healthy grassland is divided into four types:disturbed degradation type,disturbed degradation recovery type,stable health type and fluctuating type;4)the driving factors of spatial distribution and change of grassland landscape ecological health in the study area are water,surface mine,city,agriculture,industry,road network and elevation.Coal surface mining has a significant impact on landscape ecological health of grassland.(4)In this study,the concept model of the impact of large-scale surface coal base on the landscape ecology of semi-arid steppe is proposed.The objective,principle and theory of landscape pattern optimization in mining area are clarified.Based on this,the theory and method of landscape pattern optimization in mining area based on guided self-restoration are put forward.In the research process of guided self-restoration of Shengli large-scale coal base in Xilinhot City,the Modified Landscape Disturbance Index(MLDI)was put forward.Combined with the landscape ecological health assessment,buffer zone analysis and the landscape ecological function contribution rate,the spatial distribution of the impact of large-scale surface coal base on the landscape ecological health of semi-arid steppe was established.On this basis,three landscape ecological restoration regions(Engineering restoration patch,artificial maintenance patch and natural restoration patch)and corresponding guided self-restoration suggestions are proposed.Finally,the purpose of overall landscape function improvement and sustainable development is achieved with the minimum cost,and“landscape pattern optimization”is realized.In the research process of the Shengli large-scale coal base landscape pattern optimization in Xilinhot City,the landscape pattern was optimized by constructing a resistance surface based on multi-regulation fusion and adopting the minimum cumulative resistance model.Based on the newly constructed"source"landscape,ecological corridor,ecological node and constructed wetland,this paper puts forward a landscape pattern optimization model of"one ring,two vertical,two horizontal,eight core,ten node and multi corridor".The“landscape pattern optimization”model proposed by this research is based on the inherent restoration ability of the landscape ecology of large-scale coal bases and the impact of mining on the landscape ecology,and“helps”large-scale coal bases to self-repair by constructing a potential landscape pattern to make damaged landscape through its own active feedback,the ecology continues to spontaneously move towards recovery and a virtuous circle,achieving"guided self-restoration".At the same time,this study combines a series of restoration strategies at three scales:coal base,mining group and mining area,and proposes a multi-scale guided self-restoration landscape pattern optimization system.On the basis of landscape ecology,surveying and mapping science and technology,land resource management,geography,ecology,surface mining,restoration ecology,mine ecology,land reclamation and ecological reconstruction,taking Shengli coalfield in Xilinhot City,a typical large-scale coal base in semi-arid steppe,as an example.This paper puts forward the theory and method of guided self-restoration landscape pattern optimization,and the research system of“landscape classification,investigation and monitoring of large-scale coal base→landscape ecological health assessment of large-scale coal base→the impact of surface coal mining on the landscape pattern of semi-arid steppe→landscape pattern optimization of mining area based on guided self-restoration”.This study aims to provide reference for landscape classification,landscape ecological assessment,impact of mining on landscape ecology,landscape pattern optimization,landscape ecological planning,ecological planning,urban planning,landscape ecological restoration and other similar research regions around the world,such as mining cities and large-scale coal bases.This paper has 52 Figures,24 Tables and 390 References.

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