The Scientific Benefits of Sustainable Landscape Design and Its Impact on Education
【Abstract in Chinese】 近年来,人们试图将风景园林归类为科学、技术、工程与数学范畴(STEM,斯泰姆)。为此,特引用美国风景园林基金会景观绩效系列(LPS)作为斯泰姆的教学实例。事实上,一些景观绩效系列个案研究表明,通过对美国中小学进行户外学习空间的开发与合理的校园景观设计,可以对其斯泰姆教育给予支持。我们对3所学校的景观绩效进行了多方面研究。这些学校包括华盛顿特区的西德威尔友谊中学(Sidwell Friends School)、布伦特小学(Brent Elementary School)及新泽西的杨柳学校(Willow School)。3所学校均展示了如何对校园进行合理的设计,使其既能满足教学目标的需要,又能解决环境与技术问题。通过校园改造,引导师生接触一些科学过程与技术方法,从而确保斯泰姆教育的实现。对3所学校获得的益处进行了记录。
【Abstract】 Recent efforts to classify landscape architecture as a science,technology,engineering and math(STEM) discipline cite the Landscape Architecture Foundation’s Landscape Performance Series(LPS) as examples of the STEM foundation of the discipline(Cairns & Rotar,2015).In fact,some LPS case studies show how K-12 school landscapes can be designed to support STEM education through the development of outdoor learning spaces.Constructed wetlands can provide a foundation for studying hydrology,wetland ecology,and water quality treatment.Vegetable gardens can be used to teach plant biology,soil chemistry,and nutrition.Rain gardens can be used to teach habitat,plant communities,and the importance of pollinators.Three schools were studied for multiple dimensions of landscape performance including the extent to which learning opportunities were documented as benefiting all levels of education,including STEM.These included the Sidwell Friends School and Brent Elementary School in Washington,DC and the Willow School in New Jersey.Each school demonstrated how schoolyards can be designed to meet the needs of teaching objectives while addressing the environmental and technical needs of the school sites.For example,the Sidwell Friends School constructed wetlands in their middle school courtyard to treat both stormwater and wastewater immediately outside the classroom windows.The children are taught how the systems function,have class assignments that physically engage the wetlands,and even lead over 75% of the public tours of the site(over 10,000 visitors from 2006 to 2012).At the Willow School,about 250 students throughout the school year participate in school gardening by planting,watering and harvesting fruits and vegetables.An estimated 1% of the school’s food is grown in the school gardens and adjacent fruit trees.An average of 280 pounds of compost is collected by the school’s recycling program per month which is added to the student maintained vegetable garden.These opportunities are made available by designing them into the schoolyard landscapes.The interventions enable STEM education by intentionally making the scientific processes and technical solutions accessible to students and teachers.The full set of measurable benefits for each school will be described in this paper including the ways in which students and teachers use the schoolyards for educational purposes.
- 【Source】 中国园林 ,Chinese Landscape Architecture , Editorial E-mail ,2016(05)
- 【CLC code】TU986