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重新思考国际关系中的基准时间

Rethinking Benchmark Dates in International Relations

【Author in Chinese】 巴里·布赞乔治·劳森颜震

【Author】 Barry Buzan;George Lawson;the Department of International Relations,London School of Economics;

【Institution】 伦敦经济学院国际关系学系吉林大学公共外交学院

【Abstract in Chinese】 国际关系学的研究与教学中有着"一套正统的"基准时间(benchmark date):1500年、1648年、1919年、1945年和1989年。笔者认为,国际关系学者需要对这些作为内外参照物的正统基准时间进行质问,对基准时间被确立的方式进行批判性思考,并对基准时间进行修正,以便能够更好地反应宏观历史中的国际动态。第一部分对建构该学科自我认知的正统基准时间进行质疑。第二和第三部分讨论成为基准时间的资格与原因。我们从主流国际关系理论(现实主义、自由主义、建构主义/英国学派和社会学研究途径)对基准时间进行了分类,并总结其标准。第四部分进而建构了一套可以拓宽学科理论与历史视野的修正后的基准时间。我们设计了一种基准时间评级的方式,并针对近期的候选者提出了一种获得基准时间资格的方法,从而对该学科的基本时间点进行批判性思考提供了更好的启发。一套修正后的基准时间能够帮助国际关系的重心从关注战争与和平的动力转移到关注更为宽广的宏观历史动态上。

【Abstract】 International Relations has an"orthodox set"of benchmark dates by which much of its research and teaching is organized: 1500,1648,1919,1945 and 1989. This article argues that International Relations scholars need to question the ways in which these orthodox dates serve as internal and external points of refer- ence,think more critically about how benchmark dates are established,and generate a revised set of bench- mark dates that better reflects macro- historical international dynamics. The first part of the article questions the appropriateness of the orthodox set of benchmark dates as ways of framing the discipline’s self- under- standing. The second and third sections look at what counts as benchmark date,and why. We systematize benchmark dates drawn from mainstream International Relations theories( realism,liberalism,constructivism / English School and sociological approaches) and then aggregate their criteria. The fourth section of the article uses this exercise to construct a revised set of benchmark dates which can widen the discipline’s theoretical and historical scope. We outline a way of ranking benchmark dates and suggest a means of assessing recent candi- dates for benchmark status. Overall,the article delivers two main benefits: first,an improved heuristic by which to think critically about foundational dates in the discipline; and,second,a revised set of benchmark dates which can help shift International Relation’s centre of gravity away from dynamics of war and peace,and towards a broader range of macro- historical dynamics.

  • 【Source】 史学集刊 ,Collected Papers of History Studies , Editorial E-mail ,2014(01)
  • 【CLC code】D81
  • 【Downloads】308
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